Physical Design Principles to be Considered in Landscape Designs Using Natural Stones


The physical design principles to be considered in landscape design can be listed as unity, proportion, scale, harmony, balance, symmetry, rhythm, and contrast (Moughtin et al., 1999).


Unity: The elements that make up the design are unrelated to each other and not scattered. Especially in urban design, it is necessary to try to create a visual unity beyond the visual diversity of the elements.


Proportion: Proportion is formed by comparing the size, position and quantity of one of the elements that make up the design with the other elements. Accordingly, an element in the design or elements associated with each other can dominate the entire composition.

In flooring made of natural stone, the dimensions of the flooring material must be proportional to the size of the surface to be coated. While large-sized cutting materials are used on a large surface, smaller plates must be laid down to provide scale and ratio balance (Sagui, 2009).


Scale: The ratio of the scale and the objects to each other is very important in rigid structure regulation. For example; The high walls, which are about 3 m in length, surround a courtyard and will make a tower effect to the users in it. If we want to provide privacy and security in this area, the high walls may be the right choice. But if we only want to make a wall to define the garden by drawing the boundaries of a simple plant garden, a wall with an average height of 1 m will be a better choice for our design (Sagui, 2009). The human scale should be considered as the main criterion in the designs made.


Harmony: Repetition of similar layouts in the design of a space is the result of the use of one or more components as the dominant element. For example, the same color can have different shades, horizontal or vertical shapes; (Moughtin et al., 1999) of the same or similar measures, shapes or textures.


Balance and symmetry: Equilibrium is the result of repetition of items in the same situation according to an axis (Aydınlı, 1992). It is provided by a reasonable replacement of the components of the composition (shape, color, texture, etc.). A balanced composition is a visually well-organized arrangement. It shows that all the objects you use in a landscape arrangement are in harmony and harmony with each other. In a balanced landscaping, all objects should always be together and a design should be perceived to be deteriorating in the absence of one and should be pleasant to the eyes of the users. The balance of objects with each other can be symmetrical or asymmetric.


Rhythm: The composition of the rhythm consists of accents, intervals and directions (Moughtin et al., 1999). The rhythm sensation reveals a picture that can be effectively expressed in the space, scale, texture and color. The created rhythmic movement gives movement and energy (Aydınlı, 1992). A planet should have all of the features of landscape elements, such as size, shape, and color, compatible with each other. For example, on the same plan, the flooring and the covering material to be used in the wall element must be made of the same kind of stone or compatible stone. A visual rhythm is provided by repeating similar textures and patterns. The key to good fit and rhythm in a design is balanced.


Contrast: The contrast that allows designers to emphasize each other is an intriguing primitive that removes design from monotony (Moughtin et al., 1999). Contrast brings vitality to the composition. It makes the composition interesting and exciting. Balancing the contradictions is a harmonization in the composition.



There are some details to be considered in arrangements made with natural stone as well as all vegetable and structural design in a landscape design. Taking these details into consideration, the overall concept should be applied to the detailed designs in accordance with all stages of planning and technique.


priorities should be determined when starting a landscaping design concept. Design "" line "" allows it to become defined space. According to the shape of the line gives identity design. For example, a straight road almost always perceived formal and official. Designed as an informal way by curved lines curved users may feel more free and unconditional.


In order to be able to apply a successful landscape application, it is necessary and important to determine what characteristics of the application area have and to determine the necessary carrying qualities of the application to be made with natural stones. For example, if a pond or waterfall made of natural stone is built in a rock garden to provide water flow in a natural-looking garden with dense vegetation, a water wall with smoothly cut stones in the garden of a modern building in the city center would be suitable for the general concept . In other words, the design and the material to be selected must first be discussed in terms of the general concept, and landscaping decisions must be taken.


'' Color '' is a very important element in design 's identity. The use of natural stone in the right place and in the right color also affects the functionality of the design. While a shaded area can give lightness to a space by using light colored natural stones, it can cool the space by reflecting the heat from sunlight. Or, a light colored natural stones that use a wide and bright field may disturb the eyes of the users by reflecting the sun's rays, while a dark stone alternative that can be used in the same area absorbs almost all of the incoming heat and can cause the area to overheat. In order to choose the right material, it is very important to determine what purpose the field will serve.


'' Shape and texture '' creates visible effect, at least as important as color. Natural stone types used in landscape designs have different color and texture diversity according to the areas they are produced, production and processing. The designer's choice of stone color and texture is the effect that the user wants to keep alive; magnificence , elegance, simplicity, loneliness, etc. It may be possible to feel it. In the use of decorative natural stone, no texture is "right" or "wrong," and Everyone's wishes vary in this regard.

















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